alexa Impact of breast cancer resistance protein on cancer treatment outcomes.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Developing Drugs

Author(s): Ross DD, Nakanishi T

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Abstract Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) was discovered in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells having an ATP-dependent transport-based resistance phenotype. This ABC transporter functions (at least in part) as a xenobiotic protective mechanism for the organism: in the gut and biliary tract, it prevents absorption and enhances elimination of potentially toxic substances. As a placental barrier, it protects the fetus; similarly, it serves as a component of blood-brain and blood-testis barrier; BCRP is expressed in stem cells and may protect them from potentially harmful agents. Therefore, BCRP could influence cancer outcomes by (a) endogenous BCRP affecting the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of anticancer drugs; (b) BCRP expression in cancer cells may directly cause resistance by active efflux of anticancer drugs; (c) BCRP expression in cancer cells could be a manifestation of the activity of metabolic and signaling pathways that impart multiple mechanisms of drug resistance, self-renewal (stemness), and invasiveness (aggressiveness)--i.e. impart a poor prognosis--to cancers. This chapter presents a synopsis of translational clinical studies relating BCRP expression in leukemias, lymphomas, and a variety of solid tumors with clinical outcome. Data are emerging that expression of BCRP, like P-glycoprotein/ABCB1, is associated with adverse outcomes in a variety of human cancers. Whether this adverse prognostic effect results from resistance imparted to the cancer cells as the direct result of BCRP efflux of anticancer drugs, or whether BCRP expression (and also Pgp expression - coexpression of these transporters is common among poor risk cancers) serves as indicators of the activity of signaling pathways that enhance cancer cellular proliferation, metastases, genomic instability, enhance drug resistance, and oppose programmed cell death mechanisms is yet unknown. This article was published in Methods Mol Biol and referenced in Journal of Developing Drugs

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