Author(s): Rody WJ Jr, Akhlaghi H, Akyalcin S, Wiltshire WA, Wijegunasinghe M,
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether biomarkers of inflammation and periodontal remodeling are differentially expressed in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of patients wearing different types of orthodontic retainers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one adult subjects (17 men and 14 women with an age range of 20 to 35 years) were allocated to three different groups. Group 1 consisted of 10 patients wearing fixed retainers, group 2 included 11 patients using lower removable retainers, and group 3 comprised 10 patients without retainers (control). Periodontal health assessment and GCF collection were carried out at two sites per subject: the lingual side of a central lower incisor and the lingual side of a lower second premolar. Aliquots from diluted GCF were screened for the presence of biomarkers using a microarray technique. RESULTS: Group 1 patients exhibited a higher percentage of sites with visible plaque in the incisor region than the other groups (P = .03); no differences were noted in gingival bleeding and probing depths. The median concentrations (pg/mL) of interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 were significantly higher in the premolar sites of patients in group 2 (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively), whereas the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 was significantly higher at the incisors of patients wearing fixed retainers (P = .02). A significant difference between the two sites was seen only in group 2. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of different orthodontic retainers may promote specific alterations in the GCF composition. With retention periods potentially becoming longer, this finding may be of clinical significance.
This article was published in Angle Orthod
and referenced in Dentistry