alexa Impacts of Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) on the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Simes RA, Feliciano JR, Solter LF, Delalibera I Jr

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Abstract In Brazil, the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is controlled with massive releases of the hymenopteran parasitoid Cotesia flavipes Cam. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae); over 3 million hectares of sugarcane are treated annually with 18 billion parasitoids. In order to meet this demand, parasitoids are produced in D. saccharalis under laboratory conditions where a Nosema sp. is reported to be an important problem in mass rearing of the host. The goals for this work were to study the pathogenicity of the Nosema sp. and the progression of the disease in the host under laboratory conditions. The average median lethal time (LT₅₀) of Nosema sp. in first instar D. saccharalis varied from 9 ± 0.3 to 42 ± 2.3 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10 spores/μl). For third instar, the average of LT50 ranged from 32 ± 0.7 to 37 ± 0.7 days at concentration of 5 × 10(5)-5 × 10(2) spores/mm(3) artificial diet (10(7)-10(4) spores/μl in saline). The concentration necessary to cause 50\% mortality (LC₅₀) of first instar larvae was 5.6 (0.9-17.6) spores/μl and the estimated LC50 for third instar larvae was 1,200 (200-4700) spores/μl. The impacts of Nosema sp. on D. saccharalis were analyzed for first instar larvae fed 0.5 spores/mm(3) artificial diet. Duration and viability of the larval and pupal stages, adult longevity, pupal weight and fertility life table were measured for offspring of mating pairs composed of infected females and uninfected males or infected males and uninfected females and compared to offspring of uninfected pairs. Nosema sp. infection resulted in adverse effects on all biological parameters measured except for the duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight of the male pupae, which did not differ statistically between infected and uninfected groups. The intrinsic rates of growth (rm) were greater for uninfected pairs compared to pairs with either male or female infected. The growth rate of individual larvae produced by uninfected adults was 48.2\% faster than of larval offspring of infected females and it was negative (-0.003) when males were infected. Our study confirms the negative impact of the Nosema sp. in mass rearing of D. saccharalis for parasitoid production but shows potential for use as a microbial control agent of the sugarcane borer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Invertebr Pathol and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

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