alexa Improving basic and translational science by accounting for litter-to-litter variation in animal models.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Lazic SE, Essioux L

Abstract Share this page

Abstract BACKGROUND: Animals from the same litter are often more alike compared with animals from different litters. This litter-to-litter variation, or "litter effects", can influence the results in addition to the experimental factors of interest. Furthermore, sometimes an experimental treatment can only be applied to whole litters rather than to individual offspring. An example is the valproic acid (VPA) model of autism, where VPA is administered to pregnant females thereby inducing the disease phenotype in the offspring. With this type of experiment the sample size is the number of litters and not the total number of offspring. If such experiments are not appropriately designed and analysed, the results can be severely biased as well as extremely underpowered. RESULTS: A review of the VPA literature showed that only 9\% (3/34) of studies correctly determined that the experimental unit (n) was the litter and therefore made valid statistical inferences. In addition, litter effects accounted for up to 61\% (p<0.001) of the variation in behavioural outcomes, which was larger than the treatment effects. In addition, few studies reported using randomisation (12\%) or blinding (18\%), and none indicated that a sample size calculation or power analysis had been conducted. CONCLUSIONS: Litter effects are common, large, and ignoring them can make replication of findings difficult and can contribute to the low rate of translating preclinical in vivo studies into successful therapies. Only a minority of studies reported using rigorous experimental methods, which is consistent with much of the preclinical in vivo literature.
This article was published in BMC Neurosci and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

agrifoodaquavet@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

clinical_biochem@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

business@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

chemicaleng_chemistry@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

environmentalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

engineering@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

generalsci_healthcare@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

genetics_molbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

immuno_microbio@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

omics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

materialsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

mathematics_physics@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

medical@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

neuro_psychology@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

pharma@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

social_politicalsci@omicsonline.com

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version