alexa In Vitro Assessment of IL-4- or IL-13-Mediated Changes in the Structural Components of Keratinocytes in Mice and Humans
Immunology

Immunology

Immunogenetics: Open Access

Author(s): Miyuki OmoriMiyake, Masakatsu Yamashita, Yuichiro Tsunemi, Makoto Kawashima, Junji Yagi

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T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, attenuate the expression of genes that regulate epidermal cellular structures and the barrier function at the terminal stage of keratinocyte differentiation. However, whether these Th2 cytokines act at earlier stages remains unknown. We investigated the roles of cytokines in expression levels of mRNAs and/or proteins in primary mouse keratinocytes and human keratinocyte HaCaT cells at earlier stages. We showed that IL-4 downregulated the expression levels of Krt1, Krt10, Dsg1, and Dsc1 via IL-4Rα- and signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 6 (STAT6)-dependent mechanisms in differentiating mouse keratinocytes at early stages. As the expression levels of keratin-1 and -10 in the keratinocytes transiently expressing an active form of STAT6 were not downregulated, STAT6 and other IL-4-induced molecules may synergistically regulate this expression. The restoration of the downregulated expression levels of Krt1 and Krt10 induced by IL-4 with the MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase) inhibitor U0126 indicated the involvement of the p44/42 MAPK signaling pathway in the attenuated expression. IL-13 also downregulated the expression of the four genes. Furthermore, IL-4 or IL-13 caused the downregulation of these genes in HaCaT cells and promoted the fragmentation of cell sheets with mechanical stress. Our results showed that IL-4 or IL-13 acted on differentiating keratinocytes in vitro at early stages to attenuate the gene expression.

This article was published in J Invest Dermatol. and referenced in Immunogenetics: Open Access

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