Author(s): Tchoumbougnang F, Zollo PH, Dagne E, Mekonnen Y
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Abstract The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 \%), beta-phellandrene (21.1 \%), limonene (11.4 \%) and thymol (11.2 \%), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 \%), neral (29.0 \%), myrcene (16.2 \%) and beta-pinene (10.5 \%). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 \%, 81.7 \% and 86.6 \%. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 \%, 75.2 \% and 77.8 \%, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 \%.
This article was published in Planta Med
and referenced in Journal of Developing Drugs