Author(s): Farag SS, Srivastava S, MessinaGraham S, Schwartz J, Robertson MJ,
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Abstract Delayed engraftment is a significant limitation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation due to low stem cell numbers. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 enhanced engraftment in murine transplants. We evaluated the feasibility of systemic DPP-4 inhibition using sitagliptin to enhance engraftment of single-unit UCB grafts in adults with hematological malignancies. Twenty-four patients (21-58 years) received myeloablative conditioning, followed by sitagliptin 600 mg orally days -1 to +2, and single UCB grafts day 0. Seventeen receiving red cell-depleted (RCD) grafts, matched at 4 (n=10) or 5 (n=7) of 6 human leucocyte antigen (HLA) loci with median nucleated cell dose 3.6 (2.5-5.2)×10(7)/kg, engrafted at median of 21 (range, 13-50) days with cumulative incidence of 94\% (95\% confidence interval, 84\%-100\%) at 50 days. Plasma DDP-4 activity was reduced to 23\%±7\% within 2 h. Area under DPP-4 activity-time curve (AUCA) correlated with engraftment; 9 of 11 with AUCA <6,000 activity·h engrafted within ≤21 days, while all 6 with higher AUCA engrafted later (P=0.002). Seven patients receiving red cell replete grafts had 10-fold lower colony forming units after thawing compared with RCD grafts, with poor engraftment. Systemic DPP-4 inhibition was well tolerated and may enhance engraftment. Optimizing sitagliptin dosing to achieve more sustained DPP-4 inhibition may further improve outcome. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00862719.
This article was published in Stem Cells Dev
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy