Author(s): Ray SD, Patel D, Wong V, Bagchi D
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Abstract Grape seed extract, primarily a mixture of proanthocyanidins, has been shown to modulate a wide-range of biological, pharmacological and toxicological effects which are mainly cytoprotective. This study assessed the ability of IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) to prevent acetaminophen (AAP)-induced nephrotoxicity, amiodarone (AMI)-induced lung toxicity, and doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Experimental design consisted of four groups: control (vehicle alone), GSPE alone, drug alone and GSPE+drug. For the cytoprotection study, animals were orally gavaged 100 mg/Kg GSPE for 7-10 days followed by i.p. injections of organ specific three drugs (AAP: 500 mg/Kg for 24 h; AMI: 50 mg/Kg/day for four days; DOX: 20 mg/Kg for 48 h). Parameters of study included analysis of serum chemistry (ALT, BUN and CPK), and orderly fragmentation of genomic DNA (both endonuclease-dependent and independent) in addition to microscopic evaluation of damage and/or protection in corresponding PAS stained tissues. Results indicate that GSPE preexposure prior to AAP, AMI and DOX, provided near complete protection in terms of serum chemistry changes (ALT, BUN and CPK), and significantly reduced DNA fragmentation. Histopathological examination of kidney, heart and lung sections revealed moderate to massive tissue damage with a variety of morphological aberrations by all the three drugs in the absence of GSPE preexposure than in its presence. GSPE+drug exposed tissues exhibited minor residual damage or near total recovery. Additionally, histopathological alterations mirrored both serum chemistry changes and the pattern of DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, all the drugs, such as, AAP, AMI and DOX induced apoptotic death in addition to necrosis in the respective organs which was very effectively blocked by GSPE. Since AAP, AMI and DOX undergo biotransformation and are known to produce damaging radicals in vivo, the protection by GSPE may be linked to both inhibition of metabolism and/or detoxification of cytotoxic radicals. In addition, its' presumed contribution to DNA repair may be another important attribute, which played a role in the chemoprevention process. Additionally, this may have been the first report on AMI-induced apoptotic death in the lung tissue. Taken together, these events undoubtedly establish GSPE's abundant bioavailability, and the power to defend multiple target organs from toxic assaults induced by structurally diverse and functionally different entities in vivo.
This article was published in Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology