Author(s): Kristof RA, Rother M, Neuloh G, Klingmller D
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Abstract OBJECT: The authors prospectively studied the incidence, spectrum of clinical manifestations, course, and risk factors of water and electrolyte disturbances (WEDs) following transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery. METHODS: From the preoperative day to the 14th postoperative day, 57 successive patients undergoing transsphenoidal adenomectomy were monitored daily for body weight, balance of fluids, serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality, plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) levels, urinary sodium excretion, urinary osmolality, and subjective sensation of thirst. The type of adenoma operated on and the intraoperative manipulation of the neurohypophysis were also recorded. RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients (mean age 55 years, 61.4\% females) harbored 30 clinically hormone-inactive and 27 hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas. Postoperative WED occurred in 75.4\% of the patients: in 38.5\% as isolated diabetes insipidus (DI); in 21\% as isolated hyponatremia; and in 15.7\% as combined DI-hyponatremia. The maximum of medians of diuresis (5.750 L) in patients with isolated DI occurred on postoperative Day 2. Nadir of medians of hyponatremia (132 mmol/L) in patients with isolated hyponatremia occurred on postoperative Day 9. In patients with combined DI-hyponatremia, maximum of medians of diuresis (5.775 L) occurred on the 2nd day and nadir of medians of hyponatremia (130 mmol/L) on the 10th postoperative day. Altogether, 8.7\% of the patients had to be treated with desmopressin because of DI persisting for >3 months. Of all the patients with hyponatremia, 42.8\% were treated by transient fluid-intake restriction due to an IH of <130 mmol/L with or without clinical symptomatology. Transient acute renal failure occurred in one of these patients. Generally, the occurrence of postoperative WEDs was linked to the intraoperative manipulation of the neurohypophysis. Increased thirst correlated significantly with DI (p=0.001 and 0.02, respectively) and decreased thirst with the hyponatremic episode in patients with combined DI-hyponatremia (p=0.003). Decreased urine osmolality correlated significantly with the presence of DI (p=0.023). Electrolyte-free water clearance and urinary Na+ excretion were not correlated with DI and hyponatremia. Antidiuretic hormone was not suppressed during hyponatremia. CONCLUSIONS: Water and electrolyte disturbances occurred in the majority of patients undergoing transsphenoidal adenomectomy and were usually transient. Diabetes insipidus is more frequent than hyponatremia. Diabetes insipidus usually occurs during the 1st postoperative day and resolves in the majority of cases within 10 days. In few patients, DI may persist and require therapy with ADH analogs. Hyponatremia usually occurs at the end of the 1st postoperative week and resolves in most cases within 5 days. Very few patients will need treatment other than fluid-intake restriction to avoid serious complications. Thus, careful monitoring of the WEDs in patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery is mandatory for the first 10 postoperative days.
This article was published in J Neurosurg
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism