Author(s): DAlessandris C, Andreozzi F, Federici M, Cardellini M, Brunetti A,
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Abstract Because adverse effects of glucose were attributed to its increased routing through the hexosamine pathway (HBP), we inquired whether HBP activation affects pancreatic beta-cell survival. Exposure of human islets to high glucose resulted in increased apoptosis of beta-cells upon serum deprivation that was reversed by azaserine. Also, glucosamine, a direct precursor of the downstream product of the HBP, increased human beta-cells apoptosis upon serum deprivation, which was reversed by benzyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-galactopyranoside (BADGP), an inhibitor of protein O-glycosylation. These results were reproduced in RIN rat beta-cells. Glucosamine treatment resulted in inhibition of tyrosine-phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1, and IRS-2, which was associated with increased O-glycosylation. These changes caused impaired activation of the PI 3-kinase/Akt survival signaling that resulted in reduced GSK-3 and FOXO1a inactivation. BADGP reversed the glucosamine-induced reduction in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, GSK-3, and FOXO1a. Impaired FOXO1a inactivation sustained expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bim, without affecting Bad, Bcl-XL, or Bcl-2 expression. These results indicate that hyperglycemia may increase susceptibility to apoptosis of human and rat beta-cell through activation of the HBP. Increased routing of glucose through this metabolic pathway results in impaired activation of the IR/IRSs/PI3-kinase/Akt survival pathway by induction of O-glycosylation of signaling molecules.
This article was published in FASEB J
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine