alexa Independent evolution of four heme peroxidase superfamilies.
Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology

Author(s): Zmock M, Hofbauer S, Schaffner I, Gasselhuber B, Nicolussi A,

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Abstract Four heme peroxidase superfamilies (peroxidase-catalase, peroxidase-cyclooxygenase, peroxidase-chlorite dismutase and peroxidase-peroxygenase superfamily) arose independently during evolution, which differ in overall fold, active site architecture and enzymatic activities. The redox cofactor is heme b or posttranslationally modified heme that is ligated by either histidine or cysteine. Heme peroxidases are found in all kingdoms of life and typically catalyze the one- and two-electron oxidation of a myriad of organic and inorganic substrates. In addition to this peroxidatic activity distinct (sub)families show pronounced catalase, cyclooxygenase, chlorite dismutase or peroxygenase activities. Here we describe the phylogeny of these four superfamilies and present the most important sequence signatures and active site architectures. The classification of families is described as well as important turning points in evolution. We show that at least three heme peroxidase superfamilies have ancient prokaryotic roots with several alternative ways of divergent evolution. In later evolutionary steps, they almost always produced highly evolved and specialized clades of peroxidases in eukaryotic kingdoms with a significant portion of such genes involved in coding various fusion proteins with novel physiological functions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Arch Biochem Biophys and referenced in Journal of Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology

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