Author(s): Reimert CM, Ouma JH, Mwanje MT, Magak P, Poulsen LK, , Reimert CM, Ouma JH, Mwanje MT, Magak P, Poulsen LK,
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Abstract The pre- and post-treatment level of eosinophiluria, as measured indirectly by the amount of free or cell bound eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and eosinophil protein X (EPX) in urine from Schistosoma haematobium-infected Kenyan school children, were measured and compared with intensity of infection (eggs/10 ml of urine), albuminuria and pathological changes as detected by ultrasonography. ECP and EPX were determined by means of specific ELISA methods and levels were determined in both urine supernatants and extracted urine deposits (cells and cell debris). The level of ECP was significantly raised in urine supernatants from infected children compared to controls, whereas high amounts of EPX were found in urine supernatants from infected children as well as from controls. However, the amounts of cell bound ECP and EPX were significantly raised in infected children. In pre-treatment observations significant correlations were demonstrated between egg counts, albuminuria and eosinophiluria as measured by the amount of cell bound ECP and EPX, or ECP in urine supernatants. No such correlations were demonstrated with the amount of EPX in the urine supernatants. Comparable amounts of ECP and EPX could be extracted from the urine deposits from infected children, but due to the high amounts of EPX in urine deposit extracts from controls, extracted ECP gave the best discrimination between infected and non-infected children. While albuminuria disappeared in most children at the 6 week post-treatment follow-up, eosinophiluria persisted in a significant proportion of the treated children indicating continued eosinophil activity in the bladder wall. Detection and quantification of early acute inflammatory reactions using ECP/eosinophils in combination with detection of later stages of bladder pathology using ultrasound may allow for a dynamic evaluation of the pathological process, the morbidity development and post treatment pathological changes in S. haematobium infections.
This article was published in Acta Trop
and referenced in Journal of Infectious Diseases and Diagnosis