Author(s): GodinEthier J, Hanafi LA, Piccirillo CA, Lapointe R
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Abstract Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme with immune-regulating activities in many contexts, such as fetal protection, allograft protection, and cancer progression. Clinical trials are currently evaluating IDO inhibition with 1-methyltryptophan in cancer immunotherapy. However, the exact role of tryptophan catabolism by IDO in human cancers remains poorly understood. Here, we review several studies that correlate IDO expression in human cancer samples and tumor-draining lymph nodes, with relevant clinical or immunologic parameters. IDO expression in various histologic cancer types seems to decrease tumor infiltration of immune cells and to increase the proportion of regulatory T lymphocytes in the infiltrate. The impact of IDO on different immune cell infiltration leads to the conclusion that IDO negatively regulates the recruitment of antitumor immune cells. In addition, increased IDO expression correlates with diverse tumor progression parameters and shorter patient survival. In summary, in the vast majority of the reported studies, IDO expression is correlated with a less favorable prognosis. As we may see results from the first clinical trials with 1-methyltryptophan in years to come, this review brings together IDO studies from human studies and aims to help appreciate outcomes from current and future trials. Consequently, IDO inhibition seems a promising approach for cancer immunotherapy.
This article was published in Clin Cancer Res
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology