Author(s): Huang ZA, Yang H, Chen C, Zeng Z, Lu SC
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Abstract Synthesis of GSH occurs via two enzymatic steps, the first is catalyzed by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS) and the second is catalyzed by GSH synthetase (GS). A heavy (HS) and light subunit (LS) make up GCS; regulation of both subunits have been well characterized, whereas regulation of GS is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of treatments known to influence the gene expression of GCS subunits on GS expression. Insulin and hydrocortisone treatment of rat hepatocytes or ethanol-feeding of rats for 9 weeks, which increased the expression of GCS-HS only, had no influence on GS expression. However, two-thirds partial hepatectomy in rats which increased the expression of GCS-HS only, also increased GS expression. Treatment of hepatocytes or rats with diethyl maleate, buthionine sulfoximine, tert-butylhydroquinone, or thioacetamide, which increased the expression of both GCS subunits, increased the expression of GS. The GSH synthesis capacity increased 50-100\% by treatments that increased only the GCS-HS expression, whereas it increased 161-200\% by treatments that increased both GCS-HS and GS expression. Thioacetamide treatment of Chang cells increased cell GSH and GS expression by 50\%, but had minimal influence on GCS subunits. Thus, GS induction can further increase the cell's GSH synthetic capacity and in some cells may be as important as GCS in determining the rate of GSH synthesis.
This article was published in Biochim Biophys Acta
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology