Author(s): Cantoni L, Valaperta R, Ponsoda X, Castell JV, Barelli D,
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Abstract BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of oxidative stress in diclofenac hepatotoxicity is still not clear. This study examined whether the drug induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress protein. METHODS: HO-1 mRNA and HO activity were measured in mouse liver and in rat hepatocytes after treatment with diclofenac parallel to release of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) as a marker of hepatic damage. RESULTS: HO-1 was transcriptionally and dose-dependently induced by diclofenac in mouse liver and rat hepatocytes. HO-1 mRNA, ALT and SDH peaked at the same time. Mechanistic studies revealed that the drug synergized with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) in lowering hepatic glutathione, increased the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates and activated NF-kappaB and AP-1 in rat hepatocytes. HO-1 induction and hepatic damage were increased by BSO and only HO-1 induction was attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. HO-1 induction was also reduced by the cytochrome P-450 inhibitors ketoconazole and tranylcypromine, concomitantly with a significant decrease in the formation of diclofenac oxidative metabolites, which may give rise to reactive compounds. CONCLUSIONS: Acute treatment with diclofenac induces HO-1 in rodent hepatocytes. Induction is influenced by changes in the cellular redox states and by cytochrome P-450 activity and gives a new insight into the response of the liver to diclofenac.
This article was published in J Hepatol
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics