alexa Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm--in search of an optimal differential diagnosis
Cardiology

Cardiology

Angiology: Open Access

Author(s): Ishizaka N

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Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm each account for a minor fraction of the total incidence of aortic aneurysm and are associated with periaortic inflammation. Despite the similarity, infected aortic aneurysm generally shows a more rapid change in clinical condition, leading to a fatal outcome; in addition, delayed diagnosis and misuse of corticosteroid or immunosuppressing drugs may lead to uncontrolled growth of microorganisms. Therefore, it is mandatory that detection of aortic aneurysm is followed by accurate differential diagnosis. In general, infected aortic aneurysm appears usually as a saccular form aneurysm with nodularity, irregular configuration; however, the differential diagnosis may not be easy sometimes for the following reasons: (1) symptoms, such as abdominal and/or back pain and fever, and blood test abnormalities, such as elevated C-reactive protein and enhanced erythrocyte sedimentation rate, are common in infected aortic aneurysm, but they are not found infrequently in inflammatory aortic aneurysm; (2) some inflammatory aortic aneurysms are immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related, but not all of them; (3) the prevalence of IgG4 positivity in infected aortic aneurysm has not been well investigated; (4) enhanced uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by 18F-FDG-positron emission tomography may not distinguish between inflammation mediated by autoimmunity and that mediated by microorganism infection. Here we discuss the characteristics of these two forms of aortic aneurysm and the points of which we have to be aware before reaching a final diagnosis.

This article was published in J Cardiol and referenced in Angiology: Open Access

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