Author(s): van Rij ET, Girard G, Lugtenberg BJ, Bloemberg GV
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Abstract Production of the antifungal metabolite phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN) by Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PCL1391 is essential for the suppression of tomato foot and root rot caused by the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. The authors have shown previously that fusaric acid (FA), a phytotoxin produced by Fusarium oxysporum, represses the production of PCN and of the quorum-sensing signal N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C(6)-HSL). Here they report that PCN repression by FA is maintained even during PCN-stimulating environmental conditions such as additional phenylalanine, additional ferric iron and a low Mg(2+) concentration. Constitutive expression of phzI or phzR increases the production of C(6)-HSL and abolishes the repression of PCN production by FA. Transcriptome analysis using P. chlororaphis PCL1391 microarrays showed that FA represses expression of the phenazine biosynthetic operon (phzABCDEFGH) and of the quorum-sensing regulatory genes phzI and phzR. FA does not alter expression of the PCN regulators gacS, rpoS and psrA. In conclusion, reduction of PCN levels by FA is due to direct or indirect repression of phzR and phzI. Microarray analyses identified genes of which the expression is strongly influenced by FA. Genes highly upregulated by FA are also upregulated by iron starvation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This remarkable overlap in the expression profile suggests an overlapping stress response to FA and iron starvation.
This article was published in Microbiology
and referenced in Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques