Author(s): Kalil AC, LaRosa SP, Gogate J, Lynn M, Opal SM Eritoran Sepsis
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Abstract Disease severity varies widely in patients with severe sepsis. Eritoran tetrasodium (E5564), a TLR4 antagonist, blocks the binding of endotoxin and is being evaluated as a novel therapy for severe sepsis. This analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of eritoran based on severity of illness and similar effects in other recent sepsis trials. Prospective covariates from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial were analyzed for treatment interaction measured by 28-day mortality. Five statistical interaction methodologies were used. The modified intent-to-treat population (n = 292), all-cause 28-day mortality was as follows: placebo, 33.3\% (32/96); eritoran 45 mg/105 mg, 29.6\% (58/196). Logistic regression analysis identified Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, predicted-risk-of-mortality scores, IL-6, age, sex, race, and eritoran use as associated with survival. Significant treatment interactions were observed (eritoran vs. placebo) for baseline covariates: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (P = 0.035), predicted-risk-of-mortality scores (P = 0.008), number of organ failures (P = 0.079), international normalized ratio (P = 0.05), and acute physiology score (P = 0.039). I analysis showed that 38\% of the total eritoran treatment variance was explained by the severity-of-illness heterogeneity rather than by chance. No interactions observed with other variables. Consistent with the finding in this eritoran trial, other sepsis trials (IL-1 receptor antagonist, TNFsr-p55, antithrombin, drotrecogin alfa-activated) also demonstrated significant treatment by severity interaction. Potential survival benefits of eritoran in severe sepsis patients were associated with high severity of illness. These findings were used to design a phase 3 trial. Similar treatment by severity-of-illness interaction was found in most recent sepsis trials.
This article was published in Shock
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals