Author(s): Gupta V, Werdenberg JA, Mendez JS, Jane GrandeAllen K
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Abstract Differently loaded regions of the mitral valve contain distinct amounts and types of proteoglycans (PGs); these PG profiles are altered in abnormal loading and disease conditions. We developed an in vitro three-dimensional model to analyze PGs secreted by valvular interstitial cells (VICs) isolated from distinct regions of porcine mitral valves (leaflet or chordae) and subjected to either biaxial or uniaxial mechanical constraints. In addition, the PGs, DNA and collagen content of the collagen gels was monitored over time. All three PGs previously found in heart valves (decorin, biglycan and versican) were present in the collagen gels and the conditioned medium. Compared to unconstrained gels, the constrained collagen gels (whether biaxially or uniaxially loaded) retained more decorin and biglycan but less versican. However, the conditioned medium from constrained collagen gels contained higher amounts of all three PGs than did medium from unconstrained gels. Constrained collagen gels containing leaflet cells retained more decorin and biglycan than did those containing chordal cells. DNA content was maintained early in the culture period but was reduced by 55-80\% after 7 days, whereas PG synthesis increased over time. At the end of the culture period, the cell density was highest in the biaxial region of gels seeded with leaflet cells. In contrast, collagen content in both constrained and unconstrained gels remained consistent over culture duration. This study provides valuable information about the role of applied loading on proteoglycan segregation, which should aid in tissue engineering applications and for understanding valve biology and pathology.
This article was published in Acta Biomater
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology