alexa Influence of the reproductive characteristics of the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in the milk production, composition and quality
Veterinary Sciences

Veterinary Sciences

Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences

Author(s): Eduardo Bastianetto, Sidney Correa Escrivo, Denise Aparecida Andrade de Ol

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O búfalo (Bubalus bubalis) se comporta como um animal poliestral sazonal de dias curtos ou como poliestral contínuo, dependendo da proximidade com a linha do Equador. No Brasil, os animais criados nas regiões sudeste e sul (paralelos 14 a 33 Sul) tendem a apresentar parições entre os meses de fevereiro a abril, enquanto na Amazônia, próximo ao Equador, o fator que mais influencia a distribuição de partos é a disponibilidade de forragens, principalmente nos sistemas de integração várzea e terra-firme. Búfalas com escore 2 a 2,5 ao parto apresentam atraso na primeira ovulação pós-parto e requerem mais serviços por concepção, quando comparadas a búfalas de escore 3 a 3,5 (escala 1-5). Altos índices de temperatura e umidade (ITU) são observados em grande parte do território brasileiro, sendo que o ITU de 75 é proposto como limite para bubalinos. Na Amazônia, onde há o maior contingente de bubalinos brasileiro, diversas regiões apresentam ITU próximo ou superior a 80, o que ocasiona desconforto e estresse térmico animal. Os impactos do estresse térmico nas fêmeas podem ser percebidos pelas alterações de comportamento sexual, com menor manifestação estral, além de menores taxas de concepção, maior mortalidade embrionária precoce e reduzida eficiência reprodutiva. Nos machos, o estresse térmico se traduz em redução da qualidade seminal e menor viabilidade dos espermatozóides. Por isso, em boa parte do território brasileiro, em especial na Amazônia, práticas de manejo do ambiente associadas ao manejo animal são fundamentais para a sustentabilidade do sistema produtivo. A incorporação de árvores às áreas de pastagens (sistemas silvipastoris) é altamente recomendada, pois aumenta a biodiversidade local, disponibiliza sombreamento para proteção e descanso aos animais, reduz a incidência de radiação solar direta sobre os mesmos, aumentando o conforto e o bem-estar animal, com conseqüentes impactos positivos sobre a eficiência produtiva e reprodutiva dos rebanhos bubalinos.

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This article was published in Rev Bras Reprod Anim and referenced in Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences

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