Author(s): Matikainen S, Pirhonen J, Miettinen M, Lehtonen A, GoveniusVintola C, , Matikainen S, Pirhonen J, Miettinen M, Lehtonen A, GoveniusVintola C,
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Abstract Chemokines regulate leukocyte traffic and extravasation into the site of inflammation. Here we show that influenza A- or Sendai virus-infected human macrophages produce MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-3alpha, IP-10, and IL-8, whereas no upregulation of MIP-3beta, eotaxin, or MDC production was detected. Influenza A virus was a better inducer of MCP-1 and MCP-3 production than Sendai virus, whereas MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, RANTES, MIP-3alpha, and IL-8 were induced preferentially by Sendai virus. Infection in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitor indicated that ongoing protein synthesis was required for influenza A virus-induced expression of MCP-1, MCP-3, and IP-10 genes, whereas Sendai virus-induced chemokine mRNA expression took place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. Neutralization of virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta resulted in downregulation of virus-induced IP-10, MCP-1, and MCP-3 mRNA expression. IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma were found to directly enhance MCP-1, MCP-3, and IP-10 mRNA expression. Both influenza A and Sendai viruses similarly activated transcription factor NF-kappaB. In contrast to NF-kappaB, IRFs and STATs, the other transcription factors involved in the regulation of chemokine gene expression, were differentially activated by these viruses. Influenza A virus more efficiently activated ISGF3 complex formation and Stat1 DNA-binding compared to Sendai virus, which in turn was a more potent activator of IRF-1. Our results show that during viral infections macrophages predominantly produce monocyte and Th1 cell attracting chemokines. Furthermore, virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta enhanced chemokine gene expression in macrophages emphasizing the role of IFN-alpha/beta in the development of Th1 immune responses. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
This article was published in Virology
and referenced in Immunome Research