Author(s): Michalopoulos A, Papadakis E
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Abstract The administration of antibiotics by the inhaled route is a widely recognized treatment in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and bronchiectasis. Tobramycin solution for inhalation (TOBI) has been available for many years and is licensed in the USA and Europe. While strong data support the use of aerosolized antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory infections in patients with CF or bronchiectasis, only a few clinical studies have examined the role of aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in these patients. During the last decade increasing interest has been directed towards alternative treatments to the systemic administration of antimicrobial agents for the treatment of patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia or VAP due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. Recent publications demonstrate the clinical benefits from administering inhaled aminoglycosides or polymyxins in patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia or VAP. In addition to antibiotics, antifungals, and antivirals have been administered by inhalation to specific groups of critically ill patients. However, randomized controlled trials dealing with the administration of anti-infective agents via the respiratory tract are necessary in order to validate the efficacy, safety, advantages, and disadvantages of this therapeutic approach for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia.
This article was published in Infection
and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine