Author(s): Vos IH, Joles JA, Schurink M, Weckbecker G, Stojanovic T, , Vos IH, Joles JA, Schurink M, Weckbecker G, Stojanovic T, , Vos IH, Joles JA, Schurink M, Weckbecker G, Stojanovic T, , Vos IH, Joles JA, Schurink M, Weckbecker G, Stojanovic T,
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Abstract Increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) are found in rejecting renal allografts. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in infiltrating monocytes/macrophages could lead to NO bursts. NO may modulate the inflammatory response of early rejection due to its high reactivity with superoxide to yield peroxynitrite. To define the role of iNOS in acute renal allograft, rejection effects of the specific iNOS blockers iminoethyl-lysine and 7-butylhexahydro-1H-azepin-2-imine, monohydrochloride on renal function and morphology were investigated in renal allografts. Lewis rats received Brown Norway grafts with one kidney left in situ. All recipients were treated with low dose cyclosporine-A (2.5 mg/kg BW/day s.c.) to allow moderate rejection. In addition, one group received iminoethyl-lysine (10 mg/kg BW/day gavage) and one group received butylhexahydro-azepin-imine (3.4 mg/kg BW/day i.p.). Sham operated Brown Norway donor rats served as baseline controls. Compared to controls, low dose cyclosporine-A decreased glomerular filtration rate (P<0.05) and numerically increased renal vascular resistance. Adding iminoethyl-lysine to cyclosporine-A improved renal hemodynamics. Adding butylhexahydro-azepin-imine to cyclosporine-A practically restored glomerular filtration rate and renal vascular resistance (P<0.05) to control levels. Grafts treated with cyclosporine-A alone showed vascular, glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions. Adding iminoethyl-lysine or butylhexahydro-azepin-imine to cyclosporine-A did not significantly reduce vascular and glomerular injury, but diminished tubulointerstitial injury as well as nitrotyrosine staining in tubular epithelium (P<0.05). Thus, adding the iNOS blockers iminoethyl-lysine or butylhexahydro-azepin-imine to cyclosporine-A improved graft function and reduced tubulointerstitial lesions.
This article was published in Eur J Pharmacol
and referenced in Fibromyalgia: Open Access