Author(s): Hansen JB, Arkhammar PO, Bodvarsdottir TB, Wahl P
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Abstract The pattern of insulin release is crucial for regulation of glucose and lipid haemostasis. Deficient insulin release causes hyperglycemia and diabetes, whereas excessive insulin release can give rise to serious metabolic disorders, such as nesidioblastosis (Persistent Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia of Infancy, PHHI) and might also be closely associated with development of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by fasting hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and impaired insulin release, i.e. reduced first phase insulin release and decreased insulin pulse mass. The beta cell function of patients with type 2 diabetes slowly declines and will ultimately result in beta cell failure and increasing degrees of hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes, in combination with obesity and cardiovascular disorders, forms the metabolic syndrome. It has been possible to improve beta cell function and viability in preclinical models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by reducing insulin secretion to induce beta cell rest. Clinical studies have furthermore indicated that inhibitors of insulin release will be of benefit in treatment or prevention of diabetes and obesity. Pancreatic beta cells secrete insulin in response to increased metabolism and by stimulation of different receptors. The energy status of the beta cell controls insulin release via regulation of open probability of the ATP sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels to affect membrane potential and the intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)](i). Other membrane bound receptors and ion channels and intracellular targets that modulate [Ca(2+)](i)will affect insulin release. Thus, insulin release is regulated by e.g. somatostatin receptors, GLP-1 receptors, muscarinic receptors, cholecystokinin receptors and adrenergic receptors. Although the relationship between hyperinsulinemia and certain metabolic diseases has been known for decades, only a few inhibitors of insulin release have been characterized in vitro and in vivo. These include the K(ATP) channel openers diazoxide and NN414 and the somatostatin receptor agonist octreotide.
This article was published in Curr Med Chem
and referenced in Biology and Medicine