alexa Innovations in total knee replacement: new trends in operative treatment and changes in peri-operative management.
Orthopaedics

Orthopaedics

Journal of Osteoarthritis

Author(s): Stefano Zanasi

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The human knee joint can sustain damage due to injury, or more usually osteoarthritis, to one, two or all three of the knee compartments: the medial femorotibial, the lateral femorotibial and the patellofemoral compartments. When pain associated with this damage is unmanageable using nonsurgical techniques, knee replacement surgery might be the most appropriate course of action. This procedure aims to restore a pain-free, fully functional and durable knee joint. Total knee replacement is a well-established treatment modality, and more recently, partial knee replacement-more commonly known as bi- or unicompartmental knee replacement-has seen resurgence in interest and popularity. Combined with the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques, gender-specific prosthetics and computer-assisted navigation systems, orthopaedic surgeons are now able to offer patients knee replacement procedures that are associated with (1) minimal risks during and after surgery by avoiding fat embolism, reducing blood loss and minimising soft tissue disruption; (2) smaller incisions; (3) faster and less painful rehabilitation; (4) reduced hospital stay and faster return to normal activities of daily living; (5) an improved range of motion; (6) less requirement for analgesics; and (7) a durable, well-aligned, highly functional knee. With the ongoing advancements in surgical technique, medical technology and prosthesis design, knee replacement surgery is constantly evolving. This review provides a personal account of the recent innovations that have been made, with a particular emphasis on the potential use of MIS techniques combined with computer-assisted navigation systems to treat younger, more physically active patients with resurfacing partial/total implant knee arthroplasty.

This article was published in European Orthopaedics and Traumatology and referenced in Journal of Osteoarthritis

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