alexa Insect chitin synthases: a review.
Agri and Aquaculture

Agri and Aquaculture

Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development

Author(s): Merzendorfer H

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Chitin is the most widespread amino polysaccharide in nature. The annual global amount of chitin is believed to be only one order of magnitude less than that of cellulose. It is a linear polymer composed of N-acetylglucosamines that are joined in a reaction catalyzed by the membrane-integral enzyme chitin synthase, a member of the family 2 of glycosyltransferases. The polymerization requires UDP-N-acetylglucosamines as a substrate and divalent cations as co-factors. Chitin formation can be divided into three distinct steps. In the first step, the enzymes' catalytic domain facing the cytoplasmic site forms the polymer. The second step involves the translocation of the nascent polymer across the membrane and its release into the extracellular space. The third step completes the process as single polymers spontaneously assemble to form crystalline microfibrils. In subsequent reactions the microfibrils combine with other sugars, proteins, glycoproteins and proteoglycans to form fungal septa and cell walls as well as arthropod cuticles and peritrophic matrices, notably in crustaceans and insects. In spite of the good effort by a hardy few, our present knowledge of the structure, topology and catalytic mechanism of chitin synthases is rather limited. Gaps remain in understanding chitin synthase biosynthesis, enzyme trafficking, regulation of enzyme activity, translocation of chitin chains across cell membranes, fibrillogenesis and the interaction of microfibrils with other components of the extracellular matrix. However, cumulating genomic data on chitin synthase genes and new experimental approaches allow increasingly clearer views of chitin synthase function and its regulation, and consequently chitin biosynthesis. In the present review, I will summarize recent advances in elucidating the structure, regulation and function of insect chitin synthases as they relate to what is known about fungal chitin synthases and other glycosyltransferases. This article was published in J Comp Physiol B and referenced in Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version