Author(s): Bhushan A, Mukherjee T, Joshi J, Shankar P, Kalia VC
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Abstract Diversity analysis of Clostridium botulinum strains is complicated by high microheterogeneity caused by the presence of 9-22 copies of rrs (16S rRNA gene). The need is to mine genetic markers to identify very closely related strains. Multiple alignments of the nucleotide sequences of the 212 rrs of 13 C. botulinum strains revealed intra- and inter-genomic heterogeneity. Low intragenomic heterogeneity in rrs was evident in strains 230613, Alaska E43, Okra, Eklund 17B, Langeland, 657, Kyoto, BKT015925, and Loch Maree. The most heterogenous rrs sequences were those of C. botulinum strains ATCC 19397, Hall, H04402065, and ATCC 3502. In silico restriction mapping of these rrs sequences was observable with 137 type II Restriction endonucleases (REs). Nucleotide changes (NC) at these RE sites resulted in appearance of distinct and additional sites, and loss in certain others. De novo appearances of RE sites due to NC were recorded at different positions in rrs gene. A nucleotide transition A>G in rrs of C. botulinum Loch Maree and 657 resulted in the generation of 4 and 10 distinct RE sites, respectively. Transitions A>G, G>A, and T>C led to the loss of RE sites. A perusal of the entire NC and in silico RE mapping of rrs of C. botulinum strains provided insights into their evolution. Segregation of strains on the basis of RE digestion patterns of rrs was validated by the cladistic analysis involving six house keeping genes: dnaN, gyrB, metG, prfA, pyrG, and Rho.
This article was published in Indian J Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine