alexa Insulin hypersecretion: a distinctive feature between essential and secondary hypertension.
Diabetes & Endocrinology

Diabetes & Endocrinology

Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome

Author(s): Sechi LA, Melis A, Tedde R

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Abstract Several studies have demonstrated that patients with hypertension have greater plasma insulin levels than normotensive subjects. The aim of the present study was to clarify if hyperinsulinemia in hypertension is a consequence of either increased pancreatic secretion or decreased hepatic clearance, and to determine whether abnormalities of glucose metabolism are equally present in essential and secondary hypertension. In an observational cross-sectional study, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, and plasma C-peptide levels were measured in five patient groups: 34 lean normotensive, 19 overweight normotensive, 25 lean essential hypertensive, 27 overweight essential hypertensive, and 20 secondary hypertensive subjects. The blood glucose/plasma insulin and plasma insulin/plasma C-peptide ratios were calculated as indexes of insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin clearance, respectively. Subjects with essential hypertension and, to a greater extent, those who were overweight, exhibited significantly higher fasting insulin and C-peptide levels and significantly lower glucose/insulin ratios as compared with lean normotensive subjects. In contrast, no differences were observed between secondary hypertensive and control subjects. Mean blood pressure was significantly and independently correlated to body mass index, plasma insulin and plasma C-peptide levels, and the glucose/insulin ratio. In lean essential hypertensive and secondary hypertensive subjects, the insulin/C-peptide ratios were comparable to controls, indicating normal hepatic insulin clearance. In both overweight groups, a trend to increased insulin/C-peptide ratios was observed. This study shows that in essential hypertensive subjects, hyperinsulinemia is caused by insulin hypersecretion, whereas in overweight subjects, both increased insulin secretion and decreased hepatic insulin clearance might be involved.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
This article was published in Metabolism and referenced in Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome

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