Author(s): Bitnun A, Sochett E, Dick PT, To T, Jefferies C,
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Abstract Previous pediatric studies have failed to demonstrate a clear association between protease inhibitor (PI) therapy and abnormal glucose homeostasis in HIV-infected children. To define more precisely the impact of PI therapy on glucose homeostasis in this population, we performed the insulin-modified frequent-sampling iv glucose tolerance test on 33 PI-treated and 15 PI-naive HIV-infected children. Other investigations included fasting serum lipids; glucose, insulin, and C-peptide; single-slice abdominal computed tomography; and, in a subset of PI-treated children, an oral glucose tolerance test. There were no differences between the two groups with respect to fasting serum insulin or C-peptide, homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, or quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. The mean insulin sensitivity index of PI-treated and PI-naive children was 6.93 +/- 6.37 and 10.58 +/- 12.93 x 10(-4)min(-1) [microU/ml](-1), respectively (P = 0.17). The mean disposition index for the two groups was 1840 +/- 1575 and 3708 +/- 3005 x 10(-4)min(-1) (P = 0.013), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding variables using multiple regression analysis, the insulin sensitivity index and disposition index of PI-treated children were significantly lower than that of PI-naive children (P = 0.01 for both). In PI-treated but not PI-naive children, insulin sensitivity correlated inversely with visceral adipose tissue area (r = -0.43, P = 0.01) and visceral to sc adipose tissue ratio (r = -0.49, P = 0.004). Mildly impaired glucose tolerance was noted in four of 21 PI-treated subjects tested. Our results demonstrate not only that PI therapy reduces insulin sensitivity in HIV-infected children but also that it impairs the beta-cell response to this reduction in insulin sensitivity and, in a subset of children, leads to the development of impaired glucose tolerance. The presence of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and the significant correlation of reduced insulin sensitivity with increased visceral adipose tissue content suggest that PI-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy is associated with the emergence of early features of a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype.
This article was published in J Clin Endocrinol Metab
and referenced in Journal of Patient Care