Author(s): Schwaiger K, Harms KS, Bischoff M, Preikschat P, Mlle G,
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Abstract Enterococcus faecalis (n = 834) and Enterococcus faecium (n = 135) from blood and feces of hospitalized humans, from feces of outpatients and livestock and from food were screened for their susceptibility to a quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammoniumchloride, DDAC) and to 28 antibiotics by micro-/macrodilution. The maximum DDAC-MIC in our field study was 3.5 mg/l, but after adaptation in the laboratory, MIC values of 21.9 mg/l were observed. Strains for which DDAC had MICs > 1.4 mg/l ("non-wildtype," in total: 46 of 969 isolates/4.7\%) were most often found in milk and dairy products (14.6\%), while their prevalence in livestock was generally low (0-4\%). Of human isolates, 2.9-6.8\% had a "non-wildtype" phenotype. An association between reduced susceptibility to DDAC, high-level-aminoglycoside resistance and aminopenicillin resistance was seen in E. faecium (p < 0.05). No indications for a common source of non-wildtype strains were found by RAPD-PCR; however, several non-wildtype E. faecalis shared the same variant of the emeA-gene. In addition, bacteria (n = 42) of different genera were isolated from formic acid based boot bath disinfectant (20 ml of 55\% formic acid/l). The MICs of this disinfectant exceeded the wildtype MICs up to 20-fold (staphylococci), but were still one to three orders of magnitude below the used concentration of the disinfectant (i. e., 1.1\% formic acid). In conclusion, the bacterial susceptibility to disinfectants still seems to be high. Thus, the proper use of disinfectants in livestock surroundings along with a good hygiene praxis should still be highly encouraged. Hints to a link between antibiotic resistance and reduced susceptibility for disinfectants-as seen for E. faecium-should be substantiated in further studies and might be an additional reason to confine the use of antibiotics.
This article was published in Front Microbiol
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals