Author(s): Chapman PM
Abstract Share this page
Abstract Environmental toxicology has been and continues to be an important discipline (e.g., single-species testing for screening purposes). However, ecological toxicology (ecotoxicology--more realism in tests, test species and exposures) is required for predicting real world effects and for site-specific assessments. Ecotoxicology and ecology have shown similar developmental patterns over time; closer cooperation between ecologists and toxicologists would benefit both disciplines. Ecology can be incorporated into toxicology either extrinsically (separately, e.g., providing information on pre-selected test species) or intrinsically (e.g., as part of test species selection)--the latter is preferable. General guidelines for acute and chronic testing and criteria for species selection differ for ecotoxicology and environmental toxicology, and are outlined. An overall framework is proposed based on ecological risk assessment (ERA), for combining ecology and toxicology (environmental and ecological) for decision-making. Increased emphasis on ecotoxicology represents a shift from reductionist to holistic approaches.
This article was published in Mar Pollut Bull
and referenced in Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology