Author(s): GisquetVerrier P, Lynch JF rd, Cutolo P, Toledano D, Ulmen A,
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Abstract Active (new and reactivated) memories are considered to be labile and sensitive to treatments disrupting the time-dependent consolidation/reconsolidation processes required for their stabilization. Active memories also allow the integration of new information for updating memories. Here, we investigate the possibility that, when active, the internal state provided by amnesic treatments is represented and integrated within the initial memory and that amnesia results from the absence of this state at testing. We showed in rats that the amnesia resulting from systemic, intracerebroventricular and intrahippocampal injections of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, administered after inhibitory avoidance training or reactivation, can be reversed by a reminder, including re-administration of the same drug. Similar results were obtained with lithium chloride (LiCl), which does not affect protein synthesis, when delivered systemically after training or reactivation. However, LiCl can induce memory given that a conditioned taste aversion was obtained for a novel taste, presented just before conditioning or reactivation. These results indicate that memories can be established and maintained without de novo protein synthesis and that experimental amnesia may not result from a disruption of memory consolidation/reconsolidation. The findings more likely support the integration hypothesis: posttraining/postreactivation treatments induce an internal state, which becomes encoded with the memory, and should be present at the time of testing to ensure a successful retrieval. This integration concept includes most of the previous explanations of memory recovery after retrograde amnesia and critically challenges the traditional memory consolidation/reconsolidation hypothesis, providing a more dynamic and flexible view of memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study provides evidence challenging the traditional consolidation/reconsolidation hypotheses that have dominated the literature over the past 50 years. Based on amnesia studies, that hypothesis states that active (i.e., new and reactivated) memories are similarly labile and (re)established in a time-dependent manner within the brain through processes that require de novo protein synthesis. Our data show that new/reactivated memories can be formed without protein synthesis and that amnesia can be induced by drugs that do not affect protein synthesis. We propose that amnesia results from memory integration of the internal state produced by the drug that is subsequently necessary for retrieval of the memory. This interpretation gives a dynamic view of memory, rapidly stored and easily updated when active. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511623-11$15.00/0.
This article was published in J Neurosci
and referenced in International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation