alexa Interaction of adenanthin with glutathione and thiol enzymes: selectivity for thioredoxin reductase and inhibition of peroxiredoxin recycling.
Immunology

Immunology

Journal of Cell Signaling

Author(s): Soethoudt M, Peskin AV, Dickerhof N, Paton LN, Pace PE,

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Abstract The diterpenoid, adenanthin, represses tumor growth and prolongs survival in mouse promyelocytic leukemia models (Liu et al., Nat. Chem. Biol. 8, 486, 2012). It was proposed that this was done by inactivating peroxiredoxins (Prxs) 1 and 2 through the formation of an adduct specifically on the resolving Cys residue. We confirmed that adenanthin underwent Michael addition to isolated Prx2, thereby inhibiting oxidation to a disulfide-linked dimer. However, contrary to the original report, both the peroxidatic and the resolving Cys residues could be derivatized. Glutathione also formed an adenanthin adduct, reacting with a second-order rate constant of 25±5 M(-1) s(-1). With 50 µM adenanthin, the peroxidatic and resolving Cys of Prx2 reacted with half-times of 7 and 40 min, respectively, compared with 10 min for GSH. When erythrocytes or Jurkat T cells were treated with adenanthin, we saw no evidence for a reaction with Prxs 1 or 2. Instead, adenanthin caused time- and concentration-dependent loss of GSH followed by dimerization of the Prxs. Prxs undergo continuous oxidation in cells and are normally recycled by thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin. Our results indicate that Prx reduction was inhibited. We observed rapid inhibition of purified thioredoxin reductase (half-time 5 min with 2 µM adenanthin) and in cells, thioredoxin reductase was much more sensitive than GSH and loss of both preceded accumulation of oxidized Prxs. Thus, adenanthin is not a specific Prx inhibitor, and its reported antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects are more likely to involve more general inhibition of thioredoxin and/or glutathione redox pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med and referenced in Journal of Cell Signaling

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