Author(s): Vernay P, GauthierMoussard C, Hitmi A
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Abstract Contamination by chromium (Cr) is widespread in agricultural soils and industrial sites. This heavy metal represents a risk to human health. In order to gain fundamental insights into the nature of the adaptation to Cr excess, the characterisation of physiological indices, including responses of photosynthetic gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence along with changes in mineral nutrient contents and water status were studied in ray grass (Lolium perenne L.). Increased concentrations of Cr(VI) (0-500 microM Cr) in the Coïc and Lessaint nutrient solution were applied. The growth of Lolium perenne is decreased by chromium and the leaves have lost their pigments. Chromium accumulation was greater in roots than in leaves and reached 2450 and 210 microg g(-1) DW, respectively with 500 microM Cr(VI) in nutrient medium. The physiological parameters were severely reduced by this heavy metal. Cr induced toxicity arising from 100 microM Cr(VI) and resulted in a modification of mineral content in roots and leaves, especially for Ca, Mg and Fe. The chromium stress decreased CO2 assimilation rates mainly due to stomatal closure, which reduced water loss by transpiration without decreasing the cellular available CO2. The fluorescence parameters associated with photosystem II (PSII) activity and the photochemical activity are modified by chromium. Non-radiative energy dissipation mechanisms were triggered during stress since non-photochemical quenching was increased and efficiency of excitation capture by open centers was reduced.
This article was published in Chemosphere
and referenced in Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation