Author(s): von Sydow M, Snnerborg A, Gaines H, Strannegrd O
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Abstract Serum samples of 120 patients in different stages of chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, 11 patients with primary HIV-1 infection (PHI), and 49 HIV-1 seronegative homosexual men were analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), and HIV-1 p24 antigen. Increased levels of IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha were found in some, but not all, cases with PHI. During progressing disease IFN-alpha occurred in serum with increasing frequency and concentration. Raised levels of TNF-alpha were found in all stages of chronic infection, but were less common in patients with AIDS than were raised levels of IFN-alpha. The levels of the two substances were not correlated. There was a correlation between IFN-alpha, but not TNF-alpha, and the occurrence of HIV-1 p24 antigen in serum. These results suggest that IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha are induced by different agents during HIV-1 infection. The findings would be consistent with the hypothesis that IFN-alpha and TNF-alpha are counteracting forces that have important down- and upregulatory effects, respectively, on HIV-1 replication in vivo.
This article was published in AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology