Author(s): S H Stein, T E Hart, W H Hoffman
Previous studies have shown that type I diabetes (IDDM) increases the risk of developing periodontitis by 2-3-fold. IDDM patients exhibit destruction of the pancreatic beta cells, most probably caused by an autoimmune reaction. Evidence is accumulating to support the role of the autoimmune response in periodontal pathogenesis. A cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, has been reported to selectively promote the expansion of a B lymphocyte lineage (CD5/LY1/B1) which has the propensity for secreting high levels of autoantibody. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate IL-10 production, percentage of CDS B cells and the frequency of anti-collagen secreting cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of age, gender and race matched IDDM patients and controls. IL-10 production was evaluated by an ELISA using the supernatant of adherent peripheral blood cells cultured for 24 h in the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In 8 of 31 patients, IL-10 levels were significantly increased in IDDM compared to controls and a higher percentage of CD5 B cells was also observed by flow cytometry. In addition, these patients exhibited a higher frequency of anti-collagen secreting cells as elucidated by an ELISPOT. Moreover, treatment with a neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibody diminished the anti-collagen antibody response by 70%. These findings support the concept that a subset of IDDM patients possess an extremely robust IL-10 response following exposure to Gram-negative LPS, which could predispose them to the development of periodontitis through a heightened autoimmune mechanism.