Author(s): Lubroth J
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Abstract Preparations for international cooperation in response to disease disasters at the regional or continental levels are poorly coordinated and cooperation is limited, although intergovernmental and international organisations have been advocating for years that emergency responses to infectious disease outbreaks should be planned for and prepared at the national level. National governments are responsible for contingency planning to protect the public; however, this responsibility needs to be broadened to encompass regional and international approaches. Little public domain information is available on international coordinated responses to the deliberate introduction of biological pathogens. Terrorist events in the early 21st Century have increased awareness of the risks, but solid commitment and internationally resourced initiatives are still lacking. The current avian influenza disaster has largely been addressed by the three global agencies: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and World Health Organization (WHO), using the underlying precepts that shape the Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs). The GF-TADs offers a substantial base to improve regional epidemiological and environmental information, diagnostic networking, trend analysis and intervention against the important epidemic animal diseases. International prevention, preparedness and response require multidisciplinary teams working in an environment of intergovernmental cooperation that encompasses numerous ministries and agencies. This paper focuses on known international aspects of collaboration on emergency preparedness and addresses the FAO/OIE initiative to strengthen veterinary and public health systems involved in controlling and preventing serious health threats.
This article was published in Rev Sci Tech
and referenced in Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense
- Eugene Stephane Mananga
On Fer and Floquet-Magnus expansions: Application in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics
- Yosef Yarden
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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