Author(s): Kobayashi K, Censullo ML, Rossman LL, Kyriakides PN, Kahan BD
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease. However, in spite of continuous progress in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive therapy, a wide variety of vascular and nonvascular complications can arise postoperatively. Vascular complications include transplant renal artery stenosis, arteriovenous fistulas or intrarenal pseudoaneurysms following renal transplant biopsy, extrarenal pseudoaneurysms, and graft thrombosis. Nonvascular complications include urologic complications (eg, ureteral obstruction, urine leak) and perigraft fluid collections (eg, lymphocele, abscess, hematoma, urinoma). These postoperative complications can be diagnosed and managed with minimally invasive techniques; however, an understanding of renal transplant anatomy and the risks of posttransplantation immunosuppressive therapy unique to this patient population is essential to their successful application. In addition, familiarity with the indications for and limitations of these techniques as well as collaboration between the radiologist and the transplantation surgeon are vital for maximizing the chances of renal allograft survival.