Author(s): Wehrens XH, Lehnart SE, Marks AR
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Abstract Intracellular calcium release channels are present on sarcoplasmic and endoplasmic reticuli (SR, ER) of all cell types. There are two classes of these channels: ryanodine receptors (RyR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3R). RyRs are required for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in striated (cardiac and skeletal) muscles. RyRs are made up of macromolecular signaling complexes that contain large cytoplasmic domains, which serve as scaffolds for proteins that regulate the function of the channel. These regulatory proteins include calstabin1/calstabin2 (FKBP12/FKBP12.6), a 12/12.6 kDa subunit that stabilizes the closed state of the channel and prevents aberrant calcium leak from the SR. Kinases and phosphatases are targeted to RyR2 channels and modulate RyR2 function in response to extracellular signals. In the classic fight or flight stress response, phosphorylation of RyR channels by protein kinase A reduces the affinity for calstabin and activates the channels leading to increased SR calcium release. In heart failure, a cardiac insult causes a mismatch between blood supply and metabolic demands of organs. The chronically activated fight or flight response leads to leaky channels, altered calcium signaling, and contractile dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmias.
This article was published in Annu Rev Physiol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine