Author(s): Gajate C, Del CantoJaez E, Acua AU, AmatGuerri F, Geijo E,
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Abstract We have discovered a new and specific cell-killing mechanism mediated by the selective uptake of the antitumor drug 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH(3), Edelfosine) into lipid rafts of tumor cells, followed by its coaggregation with Fas death receptor (also known as APO-1 or CD95) and recruitment of apoptotic molecules into Fas-enriched rafts. Drug sensitivity was dependent on drug uptake and Fas expression, regardless of the presence of other major death receptors, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand R2/DR5 in the target cell. Drug microinjection experiments in Fas-deficient and Fas-transfected cells unable to incorporate exogenous ET-18-OCH(3) demonstrated that Fas was intracellularly activated. Partial deletion of the Fas intracellular domain prevented apoptosis. Unlike normal lymphocytes, leukemic T cells incorporated ET-18-OCH(3) into rafts coaggregating with Fas and underwent apoptosis. Fas-associated death domain protein, procaspase-8, procaspase-10, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase, and Bid were recruited into rafts, linking Fas and mitochondrial signaling routes. Clustering of rafts was necessary but not sufficient for ET-18-OCH(3)-mediated cell death, with Fas being required as the apoptosis trigger. ET-18-OCH(3)-mediated apoptosis did not require sphingomyelinase activation. Normal cells, including human and rat hepatocytes, did not incorporate ET-18-OCH(3) and were spared. This mechanism represents the first selective activation of Fas in tumor cells. Our data set a framework for the development of more targeted therapies leading to intracellular Fas activation and recruitment of downstream signaling molecules into Fas-enriched rafts.
This article was published in J Exp Med
and referenced in Journal of Oceanography and Marine Research