Author(s): Ewanowich CA, Melton AR, Weiss AA, Sherburne RK, Peppler MS
Phase-dependent invasive behavior of Bordetella pertussis was demonstrated by recovery of viable organisms from gentamicin-treated HeLa cell monolayers and by transmission electron microscopy. Several mutants of B. pertussis with Tn5 or Tn5 lac inserted into various vir-regulated genes were evaluated for differences in their invasive abilities. Mutants lacking filamentous hemagglutinin, pertussis toxin, and two as yet uncharacterized vir-regulated products had levels of invasion significantly lower than that of the parent strain BP338. In contrast, invasion by mutants lacking adenylate cyclase toxin was significantly increased compared with that of wild-type B. pertussis. This increase in invasion was eliminated when concentrations of intracellular cyclic 3'-5' AMP were stimulated by treating HeLa cells with cholera toxin or forskolin. Entry of B. pertussis occurred through a microfilament-dependent phagocytic process, as evidenced by the marked reduction in uptake following treatment of HeLa cells with cytochalasin D. Invasion was inhibited with polyclonal anti-B. pertussis and anti-filamentous hemagglutinin antisera. In addition, a monoclonal antibody against lipooligosaccharide A reduced uptake by 65.5%. The preservation of HeLa cell integrity and the limited replication of intracellular bacteria suggest that invasion may represent a means by which B. pertussis evades an active host immune response.