alexa Investigation of anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of plant volatiles eugenol and borneol in human-derived HepG2, Caco-2 and VH10 cell lines.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

Author(s): Slamenov D, Horvthov E, Wslov L, Sramkov M, Navarov J

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Abstract Plant volatiles, which can get into the human organism in food, medicines, or cosmetic preparations, frequently manifest antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and other effects. We studied anti-oxidative, cytotoxic, genotoxic and possible DNA-protective effects of eugenol and borneol. Anti-oxidative activities of aqueous and ethanolic solutions of these two volatile compounds of plants were determined by a spectrophotometric method by the use of the stable DPPH radical. Borneol did not show any anti-oxidative activity even at the highest concentrations soluble in water or ethanol (<1000mM), while eugenol did manifest anti-oxidative activity, and at much lower concentrations (5-100 microM). The cytotoxicity of eugenol and borneol as well as their DNA-damaging effects and their influence on sensitivity of cells against the DNA-damaging effects of H(2)O(2) were investigated in three different cell lines, i.e. malignant HepG2 hepatoma cells, malignant Caco-2 colon cells, and nonmalignant human VH10 fibroblasts. The trypan-blue exclusion assay showed that in the three cell lines the cytotoxicity of eugenol was significantly higher than that of borneol. Single-cell gel electrophoresis revealed that borneol did not cause any DNA strand-breaks at the concentrations studied, but showed that all concentrations of eugenol (<600 microM) significantly increased the level of DNA breaks in human VH10 fibroblasts and to a lower degree in Caco-2 colon cells. The DNA-damaging effects of eugenol were not observed in metabolically active HepG2 hepatoma cells. Borneol and eugenol differed also with respect to their DNA-protective effects. While borneol protected HepG2 and, to a lesser extent, VH10 cells (but not Caco-2) against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage, eugenol either did not change the cellular sensitivity to H(2)O(2) (HepG2 cells) or it even increased the sensitivity (Caco-2 and VH10 cells). These results do not indicate any correlation between the DNA-protective and the anti-oxidative capacities of eugenol and borneol. This article was published in Mutat Res and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta

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