Author(s): Lubach JW, Xu D, Segmuller BE, Munson EJ
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Abstract Crystalline lactose was subjected to various forms of pharmaceutical processing including compaction, lyophilization, spray drying, and cryogrinding. (13)C cross polarization and magic-angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectra were acquired for bulk crystalline lactose as well as the processed samples. Saturation recovery experiments to determine proton spin-lattice relaxation times ((1)H T(1)) showed that the alpha-monohydrate form had a (1)H T(1) of 243 s, while compaction resulted in a threefold reduction in T(1) (79 s), with little change in the spectrum. Lyophilization and spray drying both produced amorphous lactose, with relaxation times around 4 s. Cryogrinding for various times produced mixtures of crystalline and amorphous material, with the amount of amorphous material increasing with grinding time. Sixty minutes of grinding time produced mostly amorphous material, with some crystalline material remaining. The (1)H T(1) of this sample was 2.0 s. Reducing particle size, introducing crystal defect sites, and producing amorphous material all serve to reduce the T(1) by creating sites of high mobility. Spin diffusion to the high-energy sites creates a uniform (1)H T(1) across the sample. The result is shorter relaxation times for the high-energy mixtures. Relaxation measurements performed on dosage forms could potentially be used to predict stability of pharmaceutical formulations. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This article was published in J Pharm Sci
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy