Author(s): Lucey JA, Johnson ME, Horne DS
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Abstract Physical and chemical properties of cheese, such as texture, color, melt, and stretch, are primarily determined by the interaction of casein (CN) molecules. This review will discuss CN chemistry, how it is influenced by the cheese-making process, and how it impinges on the final product, cheese. We attempt to demonstrate that the application of principles governing the molecular interactions of CN can be useful in understanding the many physical and chemical properties of cheese and, in turn, how this can be used by the cheesemaker to produce the desired cheese. The physical properties of cheese (as well as flavor) are influenced by a number of factors including: milk composition; milk quality; temperature; the rate and extent of acidification by the starter bacteria; the pH history of cheese; the concentration of Ca salts (proportions of soluble and insoluble forms); extent and type of proteolysis, and other ripening reactions. Our hypothesis is that these factors also control and modify the nature and strength of CN interactions. The approach behind the recently proposed dual-binding model for the structure and stability of CN micelles is used as a framework to understand the physical and chemical properties of cheese.
This article was published in J Dairy Sci
and referenced in Journal of Bioanalysis & Biomedicine