Author(s): Yedjou CG, Tchounwou PB
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Abstract Although arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been the subject of toxicological research, in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies using relevant cell models and uniform methodology are not well elucidated. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by ATO in a human leukemia (HL-60) cell line using the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assays, respectively. HL-60 cells were treated with different doses of ATO for 24 h prior to cytogenetic assessment. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that ATO significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the viability of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner, showing a LD(50) value of 6.4 +/- 0.6 microg/mL. Data generated from the comet assay also indicated a significant dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in HL-60 cells associated with ATO exposure. We observed a significant increase (P < 0.05) in comet tail-length, tail arm and tail moment, as well as in percentages of DNA cleavage at all doses tested, showing an evidence of ATO-induced genotoxic damage in HL-60 cells. This study confirms that the comet assay is a sensitive and effective method to detect DNA damage caused by heavy metals like arsenic. Taken together, our findings suggest that ATO exposure significantly (P < 0.05) reduces cellular viability and induces DNA damage in HL-60 cells as assessed by MTT and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assays, respectively.
This article was published in Mol Cell Biochem
and referenced in Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy