alexa Involvement of kappa-opioid receptors and sigma receptors in memory function demonstrated using an antisense strategy.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Hiramatsu M, Hoshino T

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Abstract Although antinociceptive effects of U-50,488H (trans-(+/-)-3,4-dichloro-N-methyl-N-(2-[1-pyrrolidinyl] cyclohexyl) benzeneacetamide methanesulfonate and (-)-pentazocine have been reported to influence kappa-opioid receptors, the involvement of kappa-opioid receptors in learning and/or memory is still controversial. We have recently reported that the memory improving effect of (-)-pentazocine was antagonized by sigma1 receptor antagonist. In this study, we examined the effects of several antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (antisenses) to kappa1-opioid receptors and sigma1 receptor on memory and nociceptive function. Male ddY mice were treated subcutaneously (s.c.) with scopolamine (1.65 mumol/kg) and/or test drugs 30 min before a Y-maze test. U-50,488H significantly improved the scopolamine-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior. Twenty micrograms of antisense targeting exons 2 and 3 of the kappa1-opioid receptor significantly reversed the effects of U-50,488H, but antisense targeting exon 1 and mismatch sense did not. The antisense targeting exon 3 was most effective. These antisenses themselves did not affect normal mice, indicating that kappa1-opioid receptors do not tonically regulate memory function. All three antisenses equally prevented U-50,488H-induced antinociceptive effects in the acetic-acid-induced writhing test. Pretreatment with antisense targeting sigma1 receptors (AS-sigma1) completely prevented the memory-improving effects of (-)- and (+)-pentazocine, although U-50,488H ameliorated the scopolamine-induced impairment of spontaneous alternation behavior in AS-sigma1-treated mice. These results suggest that kappa1-opioid receptors containing different exons have a distinct function in memory and nociceptive functions. Furthermore, kappa-opioid receptors agonist showing analgesic effects act on kappa-opioid receptors or sigma receptors and play important roles only when memory function is impaired, but the two neuronal systems regulate memory function independently. This article was published in Brain Res and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

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