Author(s): Kajimoto T, Okada T, Yu H, Goparaju SK, Jahangeer S,
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Abstract Neuronal activity greatly influences the formation and stabilization of synapses. Although receptors for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a lipid mediator regulating diverse cellular processes, are abundant in the central nervous system, neuron-specific functions of S1P remain largely undefined. Here, we report two novel actions of S1P using primary hippocampal neurons as a model system: (i) as a secretagogue where S1P triggers glutamate secretion and (ii) as an enhancer where S1P potentiates depolarization-evoked glutamate secretion. Sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), a key enzyme for S1P production, was enriched in functional puncta of hippocampal neurons. Silencing SK1 expression by small interfering RNA as well as SK1 inhibition by dimethylsphingosine resulted in a strong inhibition of depolarization-evoked glutamate secretion. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed translocation of SK1 from cytosol to membranes at the puncta during depolarization, which resulted in subsequent accumulation of S1P within cells. Fluorescent resonance energy transfer analysis demonstrated that the S1P(1) receptor at the puncta was activated during depolarization and that depolarization-induced S1P(1) receptor activation was inhibited in SK1-knock-down cells. Importantly, exogenously added S1P at a nanomolar concentration by itself elicited glutamate secretion from hippocampal cells even when the Na(+)-channel was blocked by tetrodotoxin, suggesting that S1P acts on presynaptic membranes. Furthermore, exogenous S1P at a picomolar level potentiated depolarization-evoked secretion in the neurons. These findings indicate that S1P, through its autocrine action, facilitates glutamate secretion in hippocampal neurons both by secretagogue and enhancer actions and may be involved in mechanisms underlying regulation of synaptic transmission.
This article was published in Mol Cell Biol
and referenced in Journal of Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism