alexa Irrigant flow during photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).
Engineering

Engineering

Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering

Author(s): Koch JD, Jaramillo DE, DiVito E, , Peters OA

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Abstract OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare fluid movements generated from photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was performed using 6-μm melamine spheres in water. Measurement areas were 3-mm-long sections of the canal in the coronal, midroot and apical regions for PIPS (erbium/yttrium-aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser set at 15 Hz with 20 mJ), or passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, non-cutting insert at 30\% unit power) was performed in simulated root canals prepared to an apical size #30/0.04 taper. Fluid movement was analysed directly subjacent to the apical ends of ultrasonic insert or fiber optic tips as well as at midroot and apically. RESULTS: During PUI, measured average velocities were around 0.03 m/s in the immediate vicinity of the sides and tip of the ultrasonic file. Speeds decayed to non-measureable values at a distance of about 2 mm from the sides and tip. During PIPS, typical average speeds were about ten times higher than those measured for PUI, and they were measured throughout the length of the canal, at distances up to 20 mm away. CONCLUSIONS: PIPS caused higher average fluid speeds when compared to PUI, both close and distant from the instrument. The findings of this study could be relevant to the debriding and disinfecting stage of endodontic therapy. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Irrigation enhancement beyond needle irrigation is relevant to more effectively eradicate microorganisms from root canal systems. PIPS may be an alternative approach due to its ability to create high streaming velocities further away from the activation source compared to ultrasonic activation. This article was published in Clin Oral Investig and referenced in Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering

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