Author(s): Eberlin KR, McCormack MC, Nguyen JT, Tatlidede HS, Randolph MA,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) mitigates ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in experimental models. However, the clinical significance of this protection has been unclear and a mortality reduction has not been previously reported in noncardiac models. This study examined the local and remote protection afforded by skeletal muscle IPC and sought to determine the significance of this protection on mortality. METHODS: Mice subjected to 2 h hindlimb ischemia/24 h reperfusion (standard I/R injury) were compared with those undergoing a regimen of two 20-min cycles of IPC followed by standard I/R injury. Local injury was assessed via gastrocnemius histology, and remote injury was evaluated via intestinal histology and pulmonary neutrophil infiltration (n = 7). Mortality was compared in parallel groups for 1 week (n = 6). Groups were analyzed using an unpaired Student's t-test for gastrocnemius and pulmonary injury, and a Mann-Whitney rank sum test for intestinal injury. Mortality differences were interpreted through a hazard ratio. RESULTS: Significant protection was observed in preconditioned animals. There was a 35\% local injury reduction in skeletal muscle (71.2\% versus 46.0\%, P < 0.01), a 50\% reduction in remote intestinal injury (2.3 versus 1.1, P < 0.01), and a 43\% reduction in remote pulmonary injury (14.9 versus 8.5, P < 0.01) compared with standard injury controls. Preconditioned animals were also significantly protected from mortality, demonstrating a 66.7\% survival at 1 wk compared with 0\% survival after standard injury alone (hazard ratio 0.20, 95\% CI: 0.02-0.59). CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a murine model of IPC that demonstrates local and remote protection against I/R injury, and exhibits significant mortality reduction. This model demonstrates the powerful effect of IPC on local and remote tissues and will facilitate further study of potential mechanisms and therapies.
This article was published in J Surg Res
and referenced in Journal of Transplantation Technologies & Research