Author(s): Graef RR, Anderson GP, Doyle KA, Zabetakis D, Sutton FN,
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Camelids and sharks possess a unique subclass of antibodies comprised of only heavy chains. The antigen binding fragments of these unique antibodies can be cloned and expressed as single domain antibodies (sdAbs). The ability of these small antigen-binding molecules to refold after heating to achieve their original structure, as well as their diminutive size, makes them attractive candidates for diagnostic assays. RESULTS: Here we describe the isolation of an sdAb against Staphyloccocus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB). The clone, A3, was found to have high affinity (Kd = 75 pM) and good specificity for SEB, showing no cross reactivity to related molecules such as Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED), and Shiga toxin. Most remarkably, this anti-SEB sdAb had an extremely high Tm of 85°C and an ability to refold after heating to 95°C. The sharp Tm determined by circular dichroism, was found to contrast with the gradual decrease observed in intrinsic fluorescence. We demonstrated the utility of this sdAb as a capture and detector molecule in Luminex based assays providing limits of detection (LODs) of at least 64 pg/mL. CONCLUSION: The anti-SEB sdAb A3 was found to have a high affinity and an extraordinarily high Tm and could still refold to recover activity after heat denaturation. This combination of heat resilience and strong, specific binding make this sdAb a good candidate for use in antibody-based toxin detection technologies.
This article was published in BMC Biotechnol
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery